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The theory of strings is a philosophical construct that combines point-like particles with one-dimensional structures referred to as strings. The Structure illustrates and defines the distribution and interaction of strings across space. Strings consist of the string's mass, charge, and vibrational properties (Polchinski 25). The theory of strings coincides with quantum gravity theory. The gravitational force that involves the dynamics of a graviton or a quantum particle refers to that. The theory of strings is also the theory of everything because of the explanation of particle physics and gravity convergence. The primary purpose of physics is to unite all the four forces of nature including gravity, electromagnetism, weak and strong nuclear forces. Weak nuclear forces (carries W and Z bosons) involve the decay of the nuclei while the strong nuclear forces (carries gluon) involves holding of the part of the central (nuclei) of atoms (Polchinski 415). Electromagnetism comprises both magnetic and electric field (exchange of photons). Most of the promising theory to explain ideas and unite together gravity theories with other forces is the string theory. The theory explains how particles are the tiny vibrating strings and each type of vibration resembles a different particle. The association of the particles with gravity comprises graviton. The eight particles known as gluons carry the strong forces. Similarly, three particles W+, W- and Z transmit the weak forces (Polchinski 416).

Einstein’s general theory of relativity

Consider a string traveling across space as time ticks in a flat space-time in d dimensions. Therefore a string is a one-dimensional particle meaning there is no up or down in space-time. Thus if one want to travel across the string, either forward or backward movement is possible. However, as string moves around the space-time, there is a creation of the string world sheet. One dimensional of space and time will eventually form two-dimensional surface. The oscillations string travel in a d-dimensional space-time (Polchinski 25).

Therefore, physics of the strings relays on the string world sheet. Oscillations of string in a two –dimensional in world sheet point correspond to the oscillations two-dimensional gravity quantum theory. For the consistency of the quantized oscillations with mechanic quantum and relativity, there is restrictions on the number of space-time dimension in the one forces( bosons) and ten dimensions for bosons and fermions( both forces and matter). Places where there are gravitons, there must be gravity (Polchinski 73). For instance, closed string travels through geometry space-time; therefore the oscillations spectrum comprises two units of spin and mass of zero.

The theories of the space-time geometry consist of the gravity which relates to the distributions of the energy and matter in space-time. The coordinates of the strings in space-time touch the curvature as the closed string travels in space-time which is a curve. The curve space in which it moves it must be consistency with the theory of the quantum (Polchinski 283). Hence the curved space is the solutions to the Einstein equations.

A black hole is the area of space time where no radiation or particle can leak due to the high gravitational field. The black hole contains photons sphere, Event Horizon and a point of infinite density (Polchinski 219). Galaxies are said to contain supermassive black holes which arise as massive stars experience the gravitational breakdown. Black holes are the explanations to the Einstein equation. However, complications occur in the relationship between space-time and string. Looking at a distance of string and length scale larger than string, then the corrections is immeasurable (Polchinski 219). When the scale length gets smaller, corrections become so significant; inadequately describing the Einstein equation.

Finally, there is no proving that this theory exists in reality. Albert Einstein said, "If you want to describe a phenomenon exactly, you need to leave the elegance to the tailor."(Polchinski 220).The string theory remains a speculative theory.

Work cited

Polchinski, Joseph. String theory: Volume 2, superstring theory and beyond. Cambridge university press, 1998:20-431.

October 20, 2021

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